# Math Dictionary Part 3: Glossary in Detail L to R

Now, here is the part 3 of math dictionary series blog. Let’s take a look at new glossary.

### Math dictionary: Letter “L”

Least Squares Method: a technique of regression analysis utilized in probability theory as well as data to fit a curve-of-best-fit to observed information by reducing the amount of the squares of the differences between the observed worths and also the worths supplied by the design

Limit: the factor in the direction of which a collection or feature assembles, e.g. as x comes to be closer and closer to zero, (transgression x) ⁄ x becomes more detailed and also better to the limit of 1

Line: in geometry, a one-dimensional number complying with a continuous straight path signing up with two or even more factors, whether infinite in both instructions or just a line segment bounded by two unique endpoints

Linear equation: an algebraic formula in which each term is either a continuous or the item of a constant as well as the initial power of a solitary variable, and also whose chart is for that reason a straight line, e.g. y = 4, y = 5x + 3

Linear regression: a strategy in data and probability theory for designing spread information by thinking an approximate linear partnership in between the reliant and independent variables

Logarithm: the exponent of a power to which a base, the inverse operation to exponentiation need to increase to generate a provided number, e.g. since 1,000 = 103, the log10 100 = 3

Logic: the study of the official regulations of thinking (mathematical logic the application of the methods of formal logic to math and mathematical reasoning and vice versa).

Logicism: the concept that math is just an expansion of logic, some or all math is reducible to reasoning.

### Math dictionary: Letter “M”

Magic square: a square range of numbers where each row, column and diagonal amounted to the same total, known as the magic amount or continuous (a semi-magic square is a square number where just the rows and columns, however not both diagonals, sum to a constant).

Mandelbrot set: a collection of factors in the facility aeroplane, the border of which creates a fractal, based on all the possible c factors and Julia collections of a feature of the type z2 + c (where c is a problematic criterion).

Manifold: a topological area or surface area which, on a little enough scale, looks like the Euclidean space of a particular dimension (called the size of the manifold). For instance, a circle and a line are one-dimensional manifolds; a plane. As well as the surface area of around, are two-dimensional manifolds; and so on.

Matrix: a rectangular array of numbers that include, deducted as well as multiplied, as well as made use of to stand for direct improvements and also vectors, solve equations, and so on

Mersenne number: these are the numbers represent one less than 2 to the power of a prime number, e.g. 3 (22– 1); 7 (23– 1); 31 (25– 1); 127 (27– 1); 8,191 (213– 1); and so on

Mersenne primes: they are prime numbers which are one less than a power of 2, e.g. 3 (22– 1); 7 (23– 1); 31 (25– 1); 127 (27– 1); 8,191 (213– 1); etc– several, yet not all, Mersenne numbers are tops, e.g. 2,047 = 211– 1 = 23 x 89, so 2,047 is not a Mersenne prime, but Mersenne number.

#### Few more

Method of exhaustion: a technique of locating the area of a form by etching inside it a sequence of polygons whose areas merge to the area of the including shape.

Modular arithmetic: arithmetic for integers’ system, where numbers “wrap around” after reaching a specific worth, for instance, on a 12-hour clock, 15 o’clock is 3 o’clock (15 = 3 mod 12).

Modulus: a number whereby two provided numbers can divide by integer division, and create the same remainder, for instance, 38 ÷ 12 = 3 remainder 2, as well as 26 ÷ 12 = 2 rest 2, for that reason 38, as well as 26, are conforming modulo 12, or (38 ≡ 26) mod 12.

Monomial: an algebraic expression consisting of a solitary term (although that term could be a backer), e.g. y = 7x, y = 2×3.

### Math dictionary: Letter “N”

Natural numbers: the set of positive integers (normal entire counting numbers), sometimes consisting of absolutely no.

Negative numbers: any integer, supply or a genuine number less than 0, e.g. -743, -1.4, -√ 5 (yet not √ -1, which is an imaginary or intricate number).

Non-commutative algebra: It is an algebra in which an x b does not always equivalent to b x a, such as that used quaternions.

Non-Euclidean geometry: It is based on a rounded aeroplane, whether elliptic (round) or hyperbolic (saddle-shaped). There are no angles of a triangle and parallel lines not sum to 180 °.

Normal (Gaussian) distribution: a constant probability distribution in probability theory and stats that describes the information which clusters around the mean in a bent “normal curve”, highest possible in the middle and swiftly lessening per side.

Number line: a line on which all factors correspond to genuine numbers (a manageable number line may only note integers. However theoretically can show all real numbers to +/- infinity on a number line).

Number concept: the branch of pure math concerned with numbers’ residential or commercial properties as a whole, and integers in particular.

### Letter “O”

Ordinal numbers: an expansion of the natural numbers (different from integers and preliminary numbers). It defines the order sort of sets, i.e. the order of elements within a group or series.

### Math dictionary: Letter “P”

Parabola: a sort of conic area curve, any point of which is equally far-off from a dealt with focus factor and a set straight line

Paradox: a statement that appears to oppose itself, suggesting a remedy which is impossible

Partial differential equation: a connection including an unidentified function with several independent variables and also its partial by-products concerning those variables

Perfect number: a number that is the amount of its divisors (excluding the number itself), e.g. 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14

Periodic function: a feature that duplicates its values in normal intervals or periods, such as the trigonometric functions of sine, cosine, tangent, and so on

Permutation: a specific purchasing of a collection of objects, e.g. provided the set, there are six permutations: 1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 3, 3, 1, 2, and 3, 2, 1

Pi (π): the proportion of a circle’s circumference to its diameter, an unreasonable (as well as transcendental) number around equal to 3.141593.

Platonic solids: the five regular convex polyhedra (in proportion to 3-dimensional forms). The tetrahedron (composed of 4 regular triangles). The octahedron (composed of 8 triangular) and the icosahedron (comprised of 20 triangular). The dice (consist of 6 squares) and also the dodecahedron (consisting of 12 pentagons). Read Also:Everything about Euler’s Method Lesson

Place value: positional notation for numbers, allowing the use of the very same signs for different orders of magnitude, e.g. the “one’s place”, “ten’s location”, “hundred’s location”, etc.

#### Few more

Polar coordinates: a 2-D coordinate system in which its range r identifies each point on a plane from a fixed factor. And its angle θ (theta) from set instructions.

Polynomial: An algebraic equation or expression with more than one term, built from variables. And also constants utilizing only the procedures of enhancement, reduction, multiplication. As well as non-negative whole-number backers, e.g. 5×2– 4x + 4y + 7.

Prime numbers: integers above one which is just divisible by themselves and also 1.

Projective geometry: a kind of non-Euclidean geometry that includes what happens to forms when predicted on to a non-parallel aeroplane. For instance, it might indicate a circle right into an ellipse or a hyperbola.

Plane: a level two-dimensional surface (physical or academic) with unlimited width and length, no density and no curvature.

Probability theory: the branch of mathematics interested in the evaluation of random variables. And events and the analysis of likelihoods (the possibility of an event happening).

Pythagoras’ (Pythagorean) theory: the square of the hypotenuse of a best angled triangular is equal to (a2 + b2 = c2). It is the sum of the squares of the two sides.

Pythagorean triples: Groups of 3 positive integers a, b, and c such that the a2 + b2 = c2 equation of Pythagoras’ thesis.

### Math terms: Letter “Q”

Quadratic formula: A polynomial formula with a degree of 2 of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. It can be solved by different methods including factoring, completing the square, graphing. Newton’s approach and the quadratic formula

Quadrature: The act of squaring or locating a square equal in area to a provided number.

Quartic formula: A polynomial having a level of 4 of the kind ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0. The highest possible order polynomial formula that can be solved by factorization right into radicals by a general formula.

Quaternions: a number system that prolongs complex numbers to four dimensions. (So that a genuine number explains an item. As well as three complex numbers, all mutually vertical to every other).  It can use it to stand for a three-dimensional rotation by just an angle and a vector.

Quintic equation: a polynomial degree of 5 of the form ax5 + bx4 + cx3 + dx2 + ex lover + f = 0. Not understandable by factorization right into radicals for all reasonable numbers.

#### Math dictionary: Letter “R”

Reasonable numbers: numbers that can be shared as a portion (or ratio). A ⁄ B of two integers (the integers are for that reason a subset of the rationals). Additionally a decimal which ends after a finite variety of digits or starts to repeat a sequence

Real numbers: all numbers (including natural numbers, integers, decimals, sensible numbers as well as illogical numbers). It does not entail fictional numbers (multiples of the fictional device i, or the square root of -1). May be thought of as all factors on a considerably long number line

Reciprocal: a number, when multiplied by x, produces the multiplicative identification one. And can therefore be considered the inverse of multiplication.

Riemannian geometry: It is a non-Euclidean geometry that examines bent surfaces and also differentiable manifolds in higher dimensional rooms

Right triangle: a triangular (3 sided polygon) containing an angle of 90 °.

Thank you for reading, soon we will publish the last part of the series blog on math dictionary.